Astrocytes are the major cell type in the mammalian brain. They provide a variety of supportive functions to their partner neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), such as neuronal guidance during development, nutritional and metabolic support throughout life . Numerous studies have demonstrated that astrocytes are among the most functionally diverse group of cells in the CNS . Impairment of normal astrocyte functions during stroke and other insults can critically influence neuron survival. Retinal astrocytes are critical for the homeostasis of neurons and retinal function . Apart from various neuropathological conditions, retinal astrocytes contribute to retinal vascular disease, retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma [3, 4, 5]. Rat retinal astrocytes (RA-r) are an excellent in vitro model for studying astrocytes under normal physiological and pathological conditions.
RA-r from ScienCell Research Laboratories are isolated from CD® IGS rat retina. RA-r are cryopreserved at passage one and delivered frozen. Each vial contains >5 x 10^5 cells in 1 ml volume. RA-r are characterized by immunofluorescence with antibody specific to GFAP. RA-r are negative for mycoplasma, bacteria, yeast, and fungi. RA-r are guaranteed to further expand for 5 population doublings under the conditions provided by ScienCell Research Laboratories.
It is recommended to use Astrocyte Medium-animal (AM-a, Cat. #1831) for culturing RA-r in vitro.
 Rudge JS. (1993) "Astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factors." In Murphy S, Astrocytes: Pharmacology and Function (pp 267-94). San Diego: Academic Press, Inc.
 Shao Y, McCarhy KD. (1994) "Plasticity of astrocytes." Glia. 11: 147-55.
 Fernandez-Sanchez L, Lax P, Campello L, Pinilla I, Cuenca N. (2015) "Astrocytes and Muller Cell Alterations During Retinal Degeneration in a Transgenic Rat Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa." Front Cell Neurosci. 9:484.
 Coorey NJ, Shen W, Chung SH, Zhu L, Gillies MC. (2012) "The role of glia in retinal vascular disease." Clin Exp Optom. 95: 266-81.
 Tezel G, Yang X, Luo C, Cai J, Powell DW. (2012) "An astrocyte-specific proteomic approach to inflammatory responses in experimental rat glaucoma." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 53: 4220-33.
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